International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

Biological Effects

Biological effects can be measured at different levels of biological organization, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Biomarkers measurable at a molecular level respond early but are not readily interpreted ecologically, while measures with established ecological relevance, such as population declines or reduced reproductive rates, respond too late to have diagnostic or preventive value.

807: Persistent Toxic Substances, Food Security, and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North

11 Aug 2014


Biological Effects.pdf