Demonstrations of Innovative Approaches to the Rehabilitation of Heavily Contaminated Bays in the Wider Caribbean - Results
#59: World Bank Terminal Evaluation (2003), #611: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #963: GEF3 Tracking Tool (2010), #963: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #1032: GEF 4 Tracking Tool (2010), #1032: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #1248: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #1254: GEF3 IW Tracking Tool (2010), #1254: IWC6 Results Note (2011), #1254: UNEP Terminal Evaluation (2012), #3766: GEF5 Tracking Tool (2012)
Key Basin Project Results
"1. 1 Regional and 3 priority Fishery Ecosystem-Based Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses have been delivered
2. A proposal for a Regional Governance Framework is being advanced
3. OSPESCA pilot case study: 2ndclosed season for Caribbean spiny lobster: simultaneous application in 2010 from Belize to Panama (6 countries)" (#1032, Caribbean Sea LME)
"1. Entry into force of the Protocol Concerning Pollution of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean from Land-Based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol) in 2010, following its ratification by the Bahamas (and prior ratification by Antigua & Barbuda, as well as significant progress towards ratification and/or the meeting of its objectives by several other Participating Countries).
2. Treating of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater (BOD, N and P) through installation of 4 domestic and 1 industrial constructed wetlands (2000m3 of untreated effluent diverted from waterways); Saving 16,000 m3 of potable water through installment of 31 rainwater harvesting techniques.
3. Significant stakeholder involvement, including government and local communities, and ongoing community engagement and mobilization. This is evidenced by the establishment of committees which will continue to function after the Project (e.g. Cuba, St. Lucia, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic) and ongoing use of the Community Based Resource Assessment tool, developed by the Project." (#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
"1. Technological capacity strengthening on nutrient removal and sludge treatment in the Wider Caribbean Region;
2. Increased knowledge of best practices in wastewater management through convening of study tours and the dissemination of best practices and lessons learnt from the project and other related wastewater activities in the Wider Caribbean Region;
3. Strengthened national intuitional capacity for the rehabilitation and sustainable management of Havana Bay, Cuba including enhanced public awareness and educational progtrammes targeted at the general public and youth." (#614, Caribbean Contaminated Bays)
[Industrial Pollution (Ship)]
"1. Enhancing navigational safety in shipping lanes Navigational safety risks in maritime routs identified and navigational safety and surveillance in a network of 5 ports in the region enhanced
2. Improving environmental management and hazard reduction measures in the regional network of 5 ports within the Gulf of Honduras 5 environmental management units on 5 ports in the region were designed and agreements for development and implementation signed.
3. Building information based for the strategic Action Program developed 100% land-based pollution sources and water quality in coordination with the MBRS established." (#963, Gulf of Honduras)
"1.A set of validated Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) for some of the major crops of the Meso -Caribbean Region that are environmentally sound, socially acceptable and economically feasible, and that are transferable to other similar parts of the world.
2. An increasing number of farmers have accepted that the implementation of GAP reduces environmental impact, increases food safety and ameliorates workers welfare, while enabling better marketing opportunities.
3. The effective inter-institutional cooperation and public-private sector partnerships that were established in the project countries are going beyond the implementation of the project and are used as a platform for new projects." (#1248, Caribbean Sea Pesticide)
[Land-Based Sources of Pollution] "The project has triggered spontaneous replication and in some cases has induced cata-lytic impacts. This has occurred thanks to the combined effect of regional support mech-anisms (targeted capacity building, institutional strengthening, policy guidance, and dis-semination of information and experiences) and most importantly local on the ground actions (demonstrations and pilots) that involved at various levels all participating countries. The region is now in what will approximates the “Intermediate State” of ROtI (replication, adherence to regional treaties), and is moving towards showing concrete impacts (enacting IWCAM reforms). At the regional level, the main catalytic achievement – albeit not entirely attributable to the project - has been the entry into force of the LBS Protocol. The project has also cata-lysed the commitment of the regional Executing Agencies to sustain IWCAM promotion action as part of their mandates, and maintain and sustaining the CHM. In the countries, various cases of replication have been detected during the evaluation (see Annex I). Among those worth mentioning here is the effective exchange and replication going on in Tobago, Grenada and St. Lucia. A number of results in countries can be categorized as “catalytic”, mostly in the domain of creation/adoption of the new management water-shed/coastal zone schemes, as for example in the case of St. Lucia, the Dominican Re-public, or Bahamas, Exuma. New water and/or sewerage management policies have been adopted or are in the process of adoption in some countries (e.g.: Jamaica, St Kitts), and an innovative Land and Sea Use Plan is being considered for adoption and application to islands of The Bahamas. There is evidence in Saint Lucia, that a Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) policy promoted by the project was introduced for all Health Centers following the passage of Hurricane Tomas amid the evidence that these systems made a huge difference in having water available to those institutions which had installed the system prior to the passage of the Hurricane. In the opinion of the evaluators the most important factor behind these country level ac-complishments is the strong commitment of the national executing agencies (see Section 3), and local demo or pilot managers, who often became the champions of the IWCAM approach in their country, and beyond (see the case of Jamaica). Two general lessons relevant for the enhancement of catalytic impacts and replication can be drawn from this experience: (i) selection of demonstration projects that are highly relevant in the national context (this was made possible by the extended ad hoc preparation process during PDF B); (ii) involvement of the right national entities in the direct execution of demo projects, together with backstopping from a strong regional PCU. One further relevant consideration related to the project’s catalytic role, relates to the involvement of development financial institutions such as the World Bank, IADB, CDB and others during the project lifetime. This involvement was called for repeatedly in the Project Document, with the intent of catalysing the interest of these institutions, includ-ing IWCAM related issues, in their dialogues with the countries to provide support in addressing coastal environmental sustainability concerns. This involvement by the in-vestment banks did not happen in a systematic way, but only sporadically, and only as part of demo execution. The reason for this lack of project’s action can in part be due to the fact that the Project Document, while calling for IFIs involvement, did not foresee any specific activities and outputs apart from generically calling for the establishment of a Partnership Forum. Other elements that discouraged the project management in mov-ing aggressively and systematically in this direction would certainly been the cancella-tion of the large IADB loans, which formed the bulk of the project’s co-financing, and the length of time between approval and implementation of the GEF funded Caribbean Re-gional Fund for Wastewater Management (CReW) investment project to be implemented by IADB and UNEP. These considerations only partly justify the lack of project delivery on this point. A simi-lar consideration can be made for what concerns the engagement of the private sector, which was sporadic and happened exclusively in connection with the demos (Bahamas Exuma, Dominican Republic). The tourism and cruise industry reportedly did not re-spond to, albeit limited, efforts made to engage their interest in the project. " (#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
Municipal wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NAPOutcome 1: Established and fully functioning autonomous or semi-autonomous SWMEs in each participating country.
The overall rating of this outcome is Satisfactory, based largely on the success of the solid waste authorities and/or corporations in strengthening solid waste management in the OECS. Greater operative efficiency has led to increased and more frequent collection coverage (95% or more in five of the six participant countries, with daily service in urban areas and a weekly service (at least) in semi-urban and rural areas). Disposal practices (proper compaction, elimination of open burning, etc.) have also improved dramatically. However, across-the-board there is some concern that while five of the six SWMEs have kept up positive cash flows, the cost recovery mechanisms have not decreased reliance on government subventions, except in Grenada and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Looking ahead, service charges (like tipping fees and household service charges) will be essential to ensure the sustainability of the SWMEs and adequate quality of service.
Outcome 2: Increased coverage and improved quality of land-based solid waste management services (collection, transport and disposal) in each participating country. This project outcome achieved a Satisfactory rating. The project has helped nearly all the countries, providing new collection and disposal equipment, newly constructed sanitary landfills, closing 17 over-capacity or environmentally harmful dumps, and building technical capacity to support operations. With the exception of Dominica, all have been able to substantially increase collection coverage and
institute proper disposal techniques, with significant benefits to public health and the environment. Solid waste management coverage is at, or above, 95% in five of the six countries, and at least 95% of all land-based waste collected is properly disposed of in landfills. This is a dramatic improvement on the baseline as measured in 1995, when coverage varied from an estimated 85% in Antigua to 50% in Dominica and Grenada. Prior to the project, waste disposal was associated with a lack of site capacity, poor sanitary conditions, indiscriminate burning, visual and odor problems, pollution of ground and surface water, poor accessibility and management, indiscriminate on-site dumping, and poor compaction practices. All these deficiencies have been addressed in nearly all participant countries. A project-financed public opinion survey, completed in June 2003, covering a representative sample of approximately 50 persons per country, endorsed these conclusions, finding that: (i) collection systems had vastly improved, with more “reliable” and “professional” sanitation workers who adhere to widely publicized collection schedules; and (ii) construction of sanitary landfills and improved disposal practices have “greatly reduced odors and put an end to the harmful smoke” once prevalent on most sites.
Outcome 3: Enhanced public awareness of solid waste management issues resulting in behavioralchanges
Prior to this project, OECS governments had no organized public awareness or education campaigns for solid waste management. Information on domestic solid waste management practices was at best sporadic and tended to be short-term responses to public health concerns like mosquito or rat control. As a result, the public, as suggested by a 2000 study conducted in Antigua (Population Based KAP Survey for the National Solid Waste Management Authority – Report), had little knowledge of basic waste management practices.
To address these shortcomings in public education and awareness, the project provided funding for campaigns to help increase public information. This was implemented in all the participant countries, with varying degrees of intensity and success. The project-funded 2003 public opinion study found that information dissemination on the part of the SWMEs had led to an increased knowledge among citizens, generating thereby an overall Satisfactory rating for this outcome. Information products included: (i) newsletters; (ii) brochures; (iii) posters; (iv) public service announcements (both radio and television); (v) videos; and (vi) news columns. Further activities included school programs for all age groups, community clean-up campaigns, demonstration projects on composting and other techniques, and the promotion of the SWME’s through mascots and promotional activities at Carnival and other public gatherings. Through such activities, the SWMEs may take credit for having popularized concepts such as waste separation, dealing with bulky and household waste, and composting. The public opinion survey, however, suggests the need for more work in this area. The public has responded favorably to improved collection and disposal practices by the SWMEs, and this has resulted in a greater awareness and commitment to changing attitudes towards waste. Areas for future focus include fostering public support for tipping fees and other service charges, encouraging continued waste reuse and reduction, and promoting anti-litter campaigns. (#59, Caribbean Ship Waste)
Industrial wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NA[Ship Waste]
"Outcome 4: Improved institutional arrangements with functioning systems to help each country manage and dispose effectively of waste generated by ships (in accordance with MARPOL V 73/78) and leisure craft (yachts).
The general objective of the GEF-funded Ship-Generated Waste Management Project was “to facilitate compliance with the special area designation of the Caribbean Sea for MARPOL 73/78 Annex wastes, and thereby, reducing marine pollution in the Caribbean Sea.” This objective has been achieved, although not in the manner originally envisioned in the project design. Instead of using the project’s publicly-operated barge and MARPOL bin system for ship-side waste collection (see national component 2 for more details), shipping agents in five of the six countries have continued to hire private operators and haulers for collecting and transporting ship-waste from cruise ships and other large vessels. In Dominica, the DSWMC places and removes bins for the cruise ships. Ship-generated waste from leisure craft enters the land-based system, where improvements in collection and disposal have ensured that ship-generated waste is properly transported and disposed of at sanitary landfills. In addition, the system of ship-waste documentation (advocated by the project) has been used in several participant countries as a rudimentary system for tracking ship-generated waste, although more work will be required to ensure that the all ship waste is properly monitored from ship to dock to landfill. Additional improvements reached because of the project include: (i) five countries have signed on to MARPOL out of the six (Grenada being the exception); (ii) there is a much higher awareness about solid waste issues among cruise ships and national authorities; and (iii) there is draft legislation in all six countries on this, and an Act has been passed in St. Vincent and the Grenadines." (#59, Caribbean Ship Waste)
3. [Improving environmental management and hazard reduction measures in the regional network of 5 ports within the Gulf of Honduras] 80% of the ports are conscious of the prevention and control from maritime transport-related pollution, improving navigational safety to avoid groundings and spills, and implementing environmental management unit on each port. (#963, Gulf of Honduras)
Agriculture pollution reduction practices
Year: N/A - Value: NAP[Agricultural Pollution]
The primary objective of the GEF REPCar Project is the reduction of pesticide run-off to the Caribbean Sea. The evaluation of the runoff residues at the demonstration farms indicated a positive effect as a result of the Good Agricultural Practices implemented. Due to the complexity of the receiving environment, an accurate evaluation of the impact of these interventions at the regional ecosystem scale would require a prolonged assessment period and more extensive scope. In each participating country a set of Protocols for Good Agricultural Practices were validated for 6 combinations of crops/regions. The crops that were evaluated in the demo plots were Banana (Colombia, Costa Rica), Plantain (Colombia), Pineapple (Costa Rica), Oil Palm (Nicaragua) and Beans (Nicaragua). The GAP were implemented through extensive in-situ field training of over 6000 farmers and commercial producers to encourage conditions that discourage the use of highly toxic or persistent pesticides while promoting the use of alternative practices.
1. The amount of pesticides used per hectare for the selected crops in the regions where the project is active (demo projects):
There was a reduction in the use of all pesticides (no POPs being used) that varied from crop to crop, the degree of reduction ranged from 7.6% to 53.3% (end of project target was an average 20% reduction).
2. The number of farms applying GAP for the selected crops in the regions where the project is active:
This indicator exceeded the original end of project target of a 15 % increase from the baseline. Specifically GAP coverage improved as follows:
Colombia - banana: 95% Plantain: 67%
Costa Rica -banana: 98% Pineapple1: 74% Pineapple2: 29%
Nicaragua -beans: 95% Oil palm: 23%
(#1248, Caribbean Sea Pesticide)
Reduced fishing pressure
Year: N/A - Value: NAP[LME/Regional Seas]
INDICATOR#1 (Pilot/Demo project demonstrate stress reduction measures on initial priority concerns): Through the OSPESCA pilot case study, in 2010 the implementation of the second closed season for Caribbean Spiny Lobster fishery was supported, and consisted of a simultaneous closure in the 6 Central American “Caribbean Coast” countries
(#1032, Caribbean Sea LME)
Aquifer recharge area protection
Year: N/A - Value: 500 ha[Land-Based Sources]
INDICATOR#1 (Transformation from a threatened and exploited aquifer/well-field into a model water resource management area).
Official designation of the sensitive well-field area ((approximately 500 acres of land encompassing 7 of the 10 wells that withdraw water from the Basseterre Valley Aquifer) in the Basseterre Valley, Saint Kitts & Nevis, as a National Park under the National Conservation and Environmental Protection Act.
(#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
Establishment of country-specific inter-ministerial committees
Year: N/A - Value: YES
INDICATOR#5. (Effective National Inter-Ministry coordination): [NICs or similar operational] A preliminary inventory of existing or newly created NICs or similar inter-sectorial coordination arrangements has been made and their operationality is currently being evaluated and further promoted." (#1032, Caribbean Sea LME)
[Land-BAsed Sources of Pollution]
INDICATOR#2 (Regional and National Intersectoral Committees - PSC and NICs - given permanent status and responsibility for regional and national level IWCAM strategy and coordination. IWRM Informal Working Group for the Caribbean absorbed into the CARICOM Consortium for Water and several national committees established and resourced to carry out responsibilities (in several countries, including St. Lucia, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Cuba and the Dominican Republic) in support of IWCAM. (#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
Regional legal agreements and cooperation frameworks
Year: 1983 - Value: YES[LME/Regional Sea]
Instrument: Cartagena Convention
"Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) and the Organization for the Fisheries & Aquaculture Sector of the Central American Isthmus (OSPESCA) each have their own legal frameworks in place; however, there is no legal framework for the LME itself.
INDICATOR#1. (Agreement on and understanding of the transboundary problems of the CLME as they relate to LMR management): [countries agree on scope and priority of transboundary issues] Through the finalization of the Regional Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) together with 3 priority fisheryecosystem ased TDA’s (reef, continental shelf and pelagic fisheries), project countries have identified the priority issues to be addressed in the development of a Strategic Action Programme (SAP).
INDICATOR#2. ((sub)Regional Governance Frameworks incorporating the key policy cycle components): [regional LMR governance framework established & based on existing fora and organizations] Progress on the development of a proposal for a Regional Governance Framework together with an “Options Paper” has been made (30-40%).
INDICATOR#3. (Regional Planning Framework to address transboundary issues developed): [decision and decision-support framework and associated management plans developed for identified priority fisheries]. A proposal for the development of a Regional Environmental Monitoring Programme (REMP)/ Information Management System (IMS) has been prepared as a pre-condition to start implementation. " (#1032, Caribbean Sea LME)
Instrument: Protocol Concerning Pollution of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean from Land-Based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol) in 2010
GEF Project Result:
1. Entry into force of the Protocol Concerning Pollution of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean from Land-Based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol) in 2010, following its ratification by the Bahamas (and prior ratification by Antigua & Barbuda, as well as significant progress towards ratification and/or the meeting of its objectives by several other Participating Countries). (#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
There is no legal agreement required for participation in the CReW project. However within the project ratification of the Protocol on Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities (LBS) is encouraged. Of the aprticipating countries 5 have ratified the LBS protocal. At project completion a target of 8 additional countries are expected to have developed reforms to support implementation of the LBS Protocol. (#3766, Caribbean Wastewater)
Regional Management Institutions
Year: N/A - Value: NABodies: UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme (CAR-RCU), Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Central American Fisheries and Aquaculture Organization (OSPESCA), Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WECAFC), Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA)
Year: N/A - Value: YES[Land-Based Sources]
"INDICATOR#1 (Reforms in policy, legislation and institutional arrangements in support of IWCAM take place in all 13 participating countries)
New policies in several Participating Countries: Antigua & Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, and St. Kitts & Nevis, are incorporating Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM),which in the context of Caribbean SIDS, is being promoted as IWCAM." (#1254, Caribbean Coastal IWCAM)
2. Endorsed recommendations on legal reforms by National Governments or Publications made to promote the knowledge of the existing legal frameworks among the stakeholders of the agricultural system:
The Project facilitated Government endorsed recommendations on legal reforms in all of the 3 participating countries -Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua (original target 3 reforms). " (#1248, Caribbean Sea Pesticide)
"At least 5 of the WCR countries adopt wastewater management reforms.
at project competion 20 June 2015" (#3766, Caribbean Wastewater)
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis: Agreement on transboundary priorities and root causes
Year: 2008 - Value: YES[LME/Regional Seas]
"During the full-sized CLME Project (2009-2013), these preliminary Transboundary Diagnostic Analyses (TDAs) were updated using a Fishery Ecosystem-based approach:
The main fisheries in the Wider Caribbean Region were considered to be associated to 3 key ecosystem types:
- Reef Ecosystems (incl. mangroves & seagrasses)
- Pelagic Ecosystems
- Continental Shelf Ecosystems
Consequently, and with the aim of implementing an Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) approach, the updating of the TDAs was conducted at the level of each one of these key ecosystems.
The ecosystem-based TDAs were then further complemented by the overarching ""Governance Framework"" and summarizing ""Regional"" TDAs.
The TDAs included the development of Causal Chain Analyses (CCAs), which clearly visualize the linkage between problems and their direct, intermediate and root causes.
The CCAs constitute highly valuable aids in the identification of the priority measures (policy, legal & institutional reforms, management options & investments) that are needed to ensure the sustainable provision of goods & services from the shared Living Marine Resources in the CLME.
As such, the TDAs and CCAs are the outcomes from a technical-scientific process, and constitute the basis for the political process of defining and agreeing upon priority actions for a healthy Large Marine Ecosystem (through the development and adoption by all countries of a Strategic Action Programme or SAP), that support sustainable development in the Wider Caribbean Region." (#5542, Caribbean LME SAP Implementation)
[Gulf of Honduras]
Development of Strategic Action Program (SAP)
Year: N/A - Value: YES[LME/Regional Seas]
"10-year “Strategic Action Programme for the Sustainable Management of the shared Living Marine Resources of the Caribbean and North Brazil Shelf Large Marine Ecosystems” (“the CLME+ SAP”) endorsed by CLME countries, June 2013.
The Action Programme, which sets forward regional strategies and actions to deal with critical threats to the marine environment such as unsustainable fisheries, habitat degradation, pollution and climate change, was developed under a 4-year project called “CLME”.
he Action Programme (SAP) provides countries, regional organizations, civil society and development partners with a comprehensive roadmap for resolving critical issues affecting living marine resources. The SAP combines actions for structural change and capacity building at the regional, sub-regional and national levels, with high priority management interventions and investments on the ground, and is expected to catalyze actions and investments worth well over US$ 100 million in the Caribbean and North Brazil Shelf Large Marine Ecosystems over the next 5 to 10 years. Special attention will be given to actions that further allow for more sustainable fisheries and for the protection of key marine habitats (e.g. through the strengthening of the networks of marine protected areas)." (#1032, Caribbean Sea LME)
[Gulf of Honduras]
"1. [Building information based for the strategic Action Program developed] 100% land-based pollution sources and water quality in coordination with the MBRS established.
2. [Building information based for the strategic Action Program developed] 90% developed and implemented the Regional Information Module for the Gulf of Honduras.
2. [Building information based for the strategic Action Program developed] A Strategic Action Program ready to be socialized, negotiated and implemented among the countries that will result in regional benefits through protection of international water, their resources and sustainable use of resources according to the objectives of GEF Operational Program 10 while simultaneously reducing threats to the globally significant Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)." (#963, Gulf of Honduras)