International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

Control of Eutrophication, Hazardous Substances and Related Measures for Rehabilitating the Black Sea Ecosystem: Phase 1 - Results

GEF IDS: 341 , 397 , 1580 , 2263



Information sources
UNDP Terminal Evaluation (2001) - #341, Results Note (2013) - #341, UNDP Terminal Evaluation (1997) - #397, UNDP Terminal Evaluation (2008) - #2263, 2013 IW Results Note - #2263

Key Basin Project Results
"1. A Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) was prepared, leading to a Black Sea Strategic Action Plan, and both were revisited after 10 years and updated in Phase II of the project.

2. All six Black Sea countries developed National Strategic Action Plans.

3. The key issue identified in the TDA/SAP – the need to reduce nutrient inputs to the Black Sea, especially from the Danube – was addressed through investment, policy and regulatory reform, capacity building, scientific research, and public outreach, resulting in reduced Danube pollution loads and clear signs of recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem, including the elimination of the NW shelf hypoxic zone."(#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)

Catalytic Impacts
[see 2263]

Results data
Revised Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA)/Strategic Action Program (SAP) including Climatic Variability and Change considerations
Year: N/A - Value: NO
Municipal wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NA
• Municipal BOD5 emissions from Ukraine have fallen by about one-third and from Romania by about two-thirds since the late 1990s.
• Mykolayiv City’s water treatment utility was assisted in developing a proposed short term investment program (STIP), incorporating recommendations for financial and operational performance improvement. A technical, financial and institutional review of the Crimean Water Supply and Sewerage Sector was completed, including a STIP proposal, and terms of reference for further technical assistance were developed. (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)
Industrial wastewater pollution reduction
Year: N/A - Value: NA
The industrial/transport and municipal component included 4 sets of activities including the establishment of inventories of industrial, transport and municipal pollution sources, developing criteria and then revising hot spot identification, reviewing policies and legislation, and organising workshops to introduce BAT and financial support mechanisms.
Achievements under this output are deemed to be marginally satisfactory. The Project team was limited in its achievement in particular by the difficulty in getting reliable data from the countries. Initial expectations were that the BSC Secretariat would provide useful data, yet data quality checking was a problem and some data was purposefully withheld. Secretariat staff and some of the responsible country ministries insisted that their industrial point sources discharge data was confidential and could not be viewed or utilised by the project Team. As clearly stated by the BSERP PIU, the information provided through this exercise, and included in the BSIS, is deeply flawed and serves mostly to over-report the extent of pollution loading from the Danube. (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)
Agriculture pollution reduction practices
Year: N/A - Value: N: 36000 MT/yr, P: 6000 KT/yr
• Net reduction in nitrogen loads from the Danube to the Black Sea was estimated to be 36,000 mt/year, between the 1988-1996 average (364 kt/year) before the UNDP-GEF involvement, and the average over the 1999-2008 GEF period of 328 kt/year.
• Inorganic phosphorus loads from the Danube to the Black Sea dropped 5-6 kt/year against their mid-nineties highs of around 10-12 kt/year.
• Regional numbers of livestock decreased by about one third between 1988 and 1997, with a similar level of decrease between 1997 and 2003. During 2003 inorganic fertiliser application rates in Romania were about one third of the level applied in 1998. Inorganic fertilizer application rates in Turkey were higher than in other Black Sea countries, with medium levels applied in Bulgaria, Georgia and Romania. The lowest fertiliser application rates were found in Russia and Ukraine.
• With policy advisory support from the BSERP as well as the UNDP-GEF Danube Regional Project, and driven by various international commitments, most Danube and Black Sea countries have taken important steps to reform and implement their nutrient management policies and legislation (fertiliser use, manure management, etc.). Reduction in nutrient loads to the Black Sea will continue over time as the very high level of accumulated fertiliser and manure nitrate in Danube basin groundwater gradually diminishes with improved management practices. (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)

[Agricultural Pollution Control - Turkey]
"With a significant increase in the adoption of environmentally friendly agricultural practices through project support, it is expected that the intended objective of the project, i.e. reduction in nutrient loads to local soil and water bodies in the targeted micro-catchment areas, would be met. The project closes in June 2012; the impact evaluation will be undertaken at that time to assess the level of N and P reductions through project interventions and improvements in the quality of water entering the Black Sea.

INDICATOR#1: Increased number of farmers in project area adopting environmentally friendly agricultural practices towards nutrient discharge reduction. During project preparation, surveys indicated that virtually no farmers in project micro-catchments were processing or using manure or efficiently; insignificant measures were in place for reducing nutrient discharge. To date, the project has trained 90% (3,500) people in nutrient management practices. A significant number of farmers are now implementing environmentally friendly agricultural practices. There is a large increase in vegetative cover; crop productivity, as a proxy for soil fertility, has also increased (ranging between 30% and 145% depending on variety); training in organic farming has resulted in sustainable use of manure as fertilizer and increased marketing of organic products, resulting in improved incomes.

INDICATOR#2: Agricultural pollution into the Black Sea is reduced in pilot micro-catchments and efforts are underway to scale up these investments. Project activities, including, inter alia, the development and adoption of packages of investments and practices for nutrient discharge reduction, development and implementation of a water quality monitoring program, development and enforcement of legal institutional and regulatory mechanisms which has been mainstreamed into ministry operations and an effective public awareness program are contributing to reductions in nutrient loads entering soil and water bodies in the project area. A replication strategy is under preparation as part of the National Watershed Management Strategy." (#1074, Anatolia Watershed)
Reduced fishing pressure
Year: N/A - Value: NA
The Fisheries component included 5 separate activities: assisting the BSC on a legally binding document (LBD) for fisheries protection, carrying out a study on sensitive habitats and nursing grounds – with recommendations on fisheries – free zones and MPAs, annexes to the Bucharest Convention „Biodiversity‟ Protocol, elaborate stock assessment approaches on migratory fish, and to organise a regional workshop on regional stock assessments.
Achievements in this output were unsatisfactory, however most of the responsibility for this lack of progress rests with the partner countries, not with the BSERP team.
Establishment of country-specific inter-ministerial committees
Year: N/A - Value: TBD
Regional legal agreements and cooperation frameworks
Year: N/A - Value: YES
Black Sea Convention
Regional Management Institutions
Year: N/A - Value: YES
Body: Black Sea Commission
GEF Project Result:
"Operational structures and management tools of the Black Sea Commission were strengthened, including an Institutional Strengthening Review and an Exit Strategy.
• A draft Legally Binding Document on Fisheries was approved by the BSC in 2004. " (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)
National/Local reforms
Year: N/A - Value: YES
"The project played a positive role in consolidation of the network of national Black Sea conservation institutions; actualization of the protection legislation; national investment in Black Sea protection; countries’ involvement in progressing toward Black Sea protection; and information exchange among the countries." (#397, Black Sea Environment)

"• Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) was strengthened in line with EU Directives. Romania and Bulgaria implemented national laws and management instruments specifically on ICZM, while Georgia and Ukraine had draft ICZM laws in hand and Turkey carried out an ICZM pilot.
• The Protocol for Land-based Activities (LBA) was concluded and adopted as a draft and was being facilitated through the national and regional negotiation process." (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)

[Agricultural Pollution]
"INDICATOR #1: Development of a legal framework consistent with the EU Nitrates Directive for
good agricultural practices. Turkish legislation with respect to nitrates pollution has been harmonized
with the EU Nitrates Directive. Institutional and regulatory mechanisms are in place supporting water
quality monitoring program which has been mainstreamed into Ministry operations." (#1074, Anatolia Watershed)
Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis: Agreement on transboundary priorities and root causes
Year: 2008 - Value: YES
"The TDA has been both updated and renewed, reflecting the recent GEF „best practises‟. The TDA has been published as a report as well as in a web-based version, accessible via the website of the BSC. Achievement for this output can be considered satisfactory.
The TDA though has been issued rather late. A preliminary first draft was available in autumn 2006; the final draft was issued in January 2007. A combination of factors is responsible for the delays, including the time needed by the PIU for planning, for identification of local experts and for issuing subcontracts; the time needed for acquiring the data (there were 66 contributing specialists); data being provided in various formats (despite prescribed templates) and with a varying quality (requiring extra checks)." (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)
Development of Strategic Action Program (SAP)
Year: 2008 - Value: YES
The SAP revision effort was carried out in the project 2nd phase, commencing after the TDA was completed in January 2007. The development process utilised a SAP Drafting Team including participants from each of the Black Sea countries. The SAP was revised, with the principle innovation being the introduction of Ecosystem Quality Objectives and a series of accompanying phased, step-by-step short, medium and long term targets. (#2263, Black Sea Rehabilitation)

"• A total of 88 national and regional thematic assessments were produced, fueling the preparation of the Black Sea Strategic Action Program.
• A Black Sea Strategic Action Program was developed and signed by the ministers of the environment of the six Black Sea countries.
• A portfolio of urgent priority investments was identified and six pre-feasibility studies were implemented.
" (#341, Black Sea SAP Development)

• The project successfully helped countries to develop and draft National SAPs and adopted a basin-wide approach for co-ordination of activities for Black Sea protection. (#341, Black Sea SAP Development)