6.Case StudiesView chapters
The following case studies provide examples of stakeholder engagement in large scale ocean management programs. Below we provide a short summary of each case study with links to documents that will provide more detail on stakeholder engagement in each case.
The is a partnership initiated in 2004, of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, intent on significantly increasing regional collaboration to enhance the environmental and economic health of the Gulf of Mexico. The Alliance also includes participation by the Gulf of Mexico States Accord, which brings prospective collaboration with the Mexican Gulf of Mexico states.
Representatives from thirteen U.S. federal agencies came together form the Gulf of Mexico Regional Partnership Federal Workgroup to provide support to the Gulf of Mexico Alliance in addressing priority coastal and ocean issues identified by the Gulf States. This Working Group provides a good example of where multiple stakeholders across jurisctions, agencies, management authority, and user groups have come together to address major issues in a large marine area including: reducation in nutrient loading, improvements in Gulf water quality, restoration of coastal weland, idenificatin of Gulf habitats to inform management, and environmental education.
is one of the most productive marine ecosystems on earth and an asset of global importance. It stretches from Port Elizabeth in South Africa to the province of Cabinda in northern Angola, encompassing the full extent of the cold Benguela Current. The BCLME sustains important artisanal and commercial fisheries. Angola, Namibia and South Africa are the countries bordering the Benguela Current LME.
Efforts to implement the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem provide a good example of multi-stakeholder cooperation on a complex set of management issues in an LME. The goal of an EAF is “to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties about biotic, abiotic, and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries” ().
Implementing EAF in the BCLME involves three countries, multiple jurisdictions and agencies, numerous fish stocks, large-scale commercial fleets, small-scale fleets, artisinal fishers, and international private sector buyers. While implementation of EAF is an inherently complex and multi-stakeholder process, a review by WWF in 2015 indicates that “reasonable progress is being made in implementation of an EAF in the region.” )
The Pacific Ocean Alliance was launched in 2014, bringing together a group of stakeholders that represent the diverse range of ocean interests in the Pacific region. The Alliance was called for by Pacific Leaders to strengthen coordination and collaboration for the effective implementation of regional and national actions under the . Together, partners will work to enhance the sustainable development, management and conservation of the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Oceanscape Framework is the world’s largest government-endorsed ocean initiative. It is a collaborative agreement between 23 Pacific Island nations and territories covering an area larger than the surface of the moon (40 million km2). Endorsed by the Pacific Islands Forum leaders in 2010, the Oceanscape provides a framework for the integrated conservation management of the Pacific Ocean and Islands, with a focus on ocean health and security; governance; sustainable resource management; research; capacity building, and durable partnerships.
With its focus on strengthening conservation of the islands and marine territory of a vast area of the Pacific Ocean, the Pacific Ocean Alliance provides a great example of multi-stakeholder engagement for the management of a large, complex ecosystem.
Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelagic state with around 17,500 islands and a vast marine territory. At the crossroads of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Indonesia’s marine territory has been both a source of immense strategic significance and of acute vulnerability.
As Indonesia is striving to advance the strategic use of its marine area and defend its maritime boundaries, coordination of agencies and stakeholders is critical. To address this issue, the Indonesian Government has a created a Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and established a new Maritime Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Laut - BAKAMLA).
Implementation has been challenging, given the complexity of aligning and coordinating the authority and interests of 12 maritime agencies including the including the navy, the transportation ministry, and the maritime affairs and fisheries ministry. However, the establishment of the Coordinating Ministry and the new security agency do provide a positive example where the Government has recognized the need to engage multiple stakeholders as they work to resolve complex and challenging maritime issues.