International Waters learning Exchange & Resource Network

South China Sea (LME)

3 177 242 Km2
14 747 Km

The South China Sea LME is bordered by China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam. It covers an area of 3.2 million km², of which 0.31% is protected, and contains 7.04% and 0.93% of the world’s coral reefs and sea mounts, respectively (Sea Around Us 2007). Coastal waters are relatively shallow (less than 200 m) and are influenced by marine as well as by river and terrestrial inputs. The South China Sea Basin and Palawan Trough are deeper than 1000m. Numerous rivers (120) drain a total catchment area of 2.5 million km² into the LME. Most of the region lies within the sub-tropical and equatorial zones and the climate is governed by the northeast and southwest monsoon regimes. The northern and central parts of the region are affected by typhoons during the southwest monsoon months, bringing intense rains and destructive winds to coastal areas. This LME is particularly sensitive to ENSO, which has caused significant changes in rainfall patterns, for example, in Indonesia and Malaysia. Major oceanographic currents include those generated by the seasonal monsoons. Waters from the LME may flow seasonally into the Sulu Sea and Java Sea, contributing to the Indonesian Throughflow.


LME Factsheet
Available Metadata for GEF LME Projects
Total cost 284,00M US$
GEF allocation 85,00M US$
[Coastal Management
"1. The Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia (SDS/SEA) was adopted by twelve participating PEMSEA countries in December 2003 after three years of extensive consultations.

2. Coastal and ocean policies have been initiated in four countries; draft coastal and ocean policies are being developed in six countries, Integrated Coastal Management coverage of t...
1. One civil works contract under implementation. Other remaining contract is under procurement. Around US$500,000 disbursed by the end of Aug.2011.
2. The capacity of the Project Manager and Service Providers has been improved i.e. around 50 staff have benefited from the training and project processing experiences.
3. Still in the construction stage, the project has attracted the interest...
1.Partnership Strengthening – Stakeholders Signing MOUs
2.Public Assessment of Water Services
3.Sewerage and Sanitation Master Plans Updated
1. Eleven permanent seagrass monitoring sites were established near Bolinao; five on Santiago Island and six in coastal baranguays on the mainland.
2. Sites in Hepu and Bolinao were established as seagrass conservation sites, sustainable use zones, and seagrass sanctuaries, giving the flora in the area time to recover from previous degradation and prevent it from future damages.
3. In Hepu, a t...
GEF4 IW Tracking Tool (2010), GEF5 Tracking Tool (2012), UNEP Terminal Evaluation (2012)
See all results data